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Perhaps no topic appears as potentially threatening to evangelicals as evolution. Yet many evangelicals have reconciled their firm beliefs in God and the Bible with the conclusions of science. How? Here are the stories of over a dozen evangelical scientists, pastors, biblical scholars and theologians who have come to embrace both evolution and faith.
In this age of post-modern-evolutionary-enlightenment and secularism where, for various ‘reasons’ there is an increasing skepticism regarding traditional views of God—both Classical and Biblical. This evolution of thought and theology regarding the existence of the God of Judeo/Christian thought has produced various ideas that have more of an affinity with Buddhistic notions of the ‘divine’.This chapter from my book, Beyond Eden: God, Evolution & The Problem of Eden’,is both an overview of these views—in particular that of Process theology; a theology of the ‘god’ of the impersonal and the unknowable—‘the ground of being’.
GOD can write a book, can’t HE?
By Derek J. White
|D.A. Carson states that, “It should go without saying that the authority of the Bible must be recognised by Christians. The church cannot exist and flourish without unreservedly embracing the Bible. But the central heritage of the church on this subject has come under increasing fire. It is not surprising therefore that Netland (1) lists scepticism about the Bible as one of the contributing reasons for the rise of religious pluralism and the rejection of exclusivism (something that is exclusively true & relevant).” (2) Carson is, in my opinion, correct in his emphasis on ‘ Christians must’. However, it seems to me that we have, unfortunately, to ask rather than presume what is exactly meant by ‘Christians’. By the church we should, I believe, be thinking of something akin to the model seen (through the eyes of the New Testament) in the first century. By ‘Christians’, I take it that Carson does not mean all those purporting to be Christians. He may be referring to the church that is yet to come as well as the church that we can refer to as the body or group of believers taking seriously the claims made in both the Old and New Testaments. Evangelical Christianity may have lost ground but all is not lost — the ‘lost’ ground can be retaken — metaphorically speaking that is. It is my aim through this article to encourage confidence and to offer some ‘reasonable grounds’ for belief in the trustworthiness of the part of the Bible known as the New Testament. Belief, that is, in its validity and in its reliability – even for cynics, Christian or otherwise — for those living in a Post Modern fog of doubt and confusion.
Preachers often refer to the allegedly true story of a young boy’s definition of faith i.e. that ‘faith is believing something you know isn’t true.’(3) This is, of course, a travesty — a distortion of the biblical definition of faith. Faith is not an irrational leap in the dark nor is it believing something that has no bearing on facts. Biblical faith is, I suggest, believing The Truth. In his book ‘Escape From Reason’, Francis Schaeffer suggests that modern man [now post modern man] has come to his [present] position because he has accepted a new attitude to truth. Any new attitude to ‘anything’ does not usually arise in a vacuum — it happens over time, usually through the filtered influence of academics and intellectuals. In the twentieth century, this influence spread through the media in the guise of ‘education’, soap operas and television documentaries, as well as through newspapers and other forms of ‘communication’; in the twenty-first century the ‘status quo’ prevails.
Francis Schaeffer said that, “The modern (Schaeffer writing in the sixties) view of truth drives a wedge between the Greek and Jewish views, but it does so at the wrong point. Those who hold the modern view would picture the Greeks as holding to rational truth and the Jews as being existentialists…The Jewish concept is separated from the Greek in that the Jewish was rooted in space-time history and not just a balanced system.” (5) Schaeffer’s is a crucially important point when it comes to developing an apologetic for the Judao/Christian Scriptures because the New and Old Testaments are inexorably linked.
The Greeks may have had ‘ideas’, but it was through God’s people Israel that God revealed His word, and this not in a vacuum but, as Francis Schaeffer said — ‘in space and time’.
The abandonment of objective truth and the acceptance of relativism are basic to post modernism. As a movement it is wide ranging, covering culture and architecture and sociological issues. But its attitude to truth and knowledge is crucial. Postmodernism decisively rejects any concept of objective truth, and so certainty, “The intriguing fact however is that our postmodern age has continued to function as if truth, meaning and even authority still exist. We have to admit that that there is no other way we can function; consistent relativism is unliveable. Post-modern thinkers use reason to actuate reason, and structure sentences in their essays of deconstruction. The world we actually live in is not the world of the post-modernist. It is a world where reason and knowledge and truth and meaning and structures do exist and function perfectly satisfactorily.” P. Hicks (6)
Even though academics in their ivory towers may dismiss Hick’s comments as being unreasonable, we have nevertheless to reject views that deny the possibility that ‘post-modern man’ has no common sense — that he wouldn’t be able to see, ‘the wood from the trees’ — evidence of truth over falsehood — narrative myth over historical narrative.
1. History written in advance (8)
“And suppose all these evidences hang together without internal contradictions or literary stress within the same anthology. Collectively, we could not take these evidences lightly.” (10) Quite! The problem is however that we have had at least two centuries of what has been, nothing less than a sedulous attack on the New Testament as being a reliable source of first century information. We have, I suggest, more than reasonable grounds for believing that The Bible is ‘the collective anthology’ in which we can have full confidence. The use of prophecy in apologetics is one way through which we can encourage and even impart confidence in The New Testament (and indeed in the Old Testament as well). It is true that matching up prophecies, spoken or written, with the actual fulfilment can be rather a subjective exercise, however there are enough examples that give objective reasons [evidences] for accepting Biblical prophecy as examples of the reliability and indeed credibility of the New Testament. Unfortunately, space does not allow for their mention here, so this will have to be the material for another paper. However there are many excellent books written on the subject. (13)
J.A.Bloom on other ‘scriptures’:
The Word of God?
a) We may say we ‘know that Jesus is our saviour, that ‘we know we’re going to heaven’ but this is not the same as ‘knowing that the Bible is the word of God. Knowing that Jesus is our saviour and that we are going to heaven is to do with our security in Christ — given us as a deposit. But these cannot be given as empirical proof because they are most certainly not.
MacRae says that none of the above can be taken as empirical evidence. It is, as he suggests, “simply not good enough” for anyone to claim that ‘their’ writings or ‘their’ book/revelation is the word of God .MacRae is, in my opinion, correct—how could anyone, in the twenty first century market place of ideas and options, even consider offering such subjectivisms as a defence for anything. Some would argue, as does Kierkegaard (17), that at least subjectivism has an ‘existential relevance’. No one could deny that, but it is hardly empirically viable evidence, is it? Notwithstanding all the relative and subjective reasons for belief in a divine source for any of ‘the scriptures’, is there any difference between the non Christian subjectivist claims that the ‘truth’ is in their word and therefore has to be accepted and our using as a proof text 2 Timothy 3:16,17, which is often used as a means of verification for the rest of the Bible? I suggest not. Please do not misunderstand me; I believe that the Bible is the word of God and that through reading it one can have personal assurances as mentioned above. My belief in the authenticity of the New Testament is, indeed, my raison dêtre for writing this article, and for my interest in apologetics. As the Lord Jesus said regarding the unity of the church I say regarding the need for sound apologetics — it is, “So that the world might believe…” [John 17:20]. Belief in something because it feels right could be considered foolishness — as Proverbs 16:25 says: “There is a way that seems right to a man but in the end it leads to death.”
MacRae suggests that individuals (having access to scripture — being de facto exegetes) are no better equipped to decide — or to know objectively what is or isn’t God’s word, or what should or shouldn’t be in the canon of scripture: “Must the individual believer study the evidence regarding the genuineness of each book for himself and make a decision as to every book which claims to be divine scripture?” (18) No, of course not.
God’s Word ‘Remembered’
It seems to me that the above information adds fuel to the fact that ‘we’ do have, more than, reasonable grounds for belief in the trustworthiness of the Bible, in its validity and in its reliability. Furthermore, it is important to note that the books of the New Testament did not become ‘the revealed word of God’ simply because a group of learned men got together and decreed that this particular collection of writings were God’s revealed word as opposed to other writings — other pretenders.
“Exactly why did apostolic Christianity survive and thrive? Robert Speer pulls no punches when he proclaims, ‘ Christianity lived because it was the true to the truth. Through all the centuries it has never been able to live otherwise. It cannot live otherwise today.'” (20)
The following quotes from Dunbar, Drane, Groothuis, Carson, Moo and Morris speak for themselves in that they make clear the historical case for belief in the validity and reliability of the scriptures:
In short, that God is a self-disclosing, speaking, covenant-keeping God who has supremely revealed himself in a historical figure, Jesus the Messiah, establishes the necessity of the canon and, implicitly, its closure. The notion of canon forbids all self-conscious attempts to select only part of the canon as the governing standard of the Christian church: that would be to de-canonise canon, a contradiction in terms. Because the canon is made up of books whose authority ultimately springs from God’s gracious self-revelation, it is better to speak of recognising the canon than of establishing it. An canonical theology cannot rightly be divorced from the questions that tie God’s revelation to real history. (24)The sceptic, the liberal and ‘the enlightened’ may say that the above proves nothing more than the possibility of consensus in the early church. However, it seems to me that any thinking ‘post modern’ person would surely consider the implications. I suggest that the implications ought to at least provoke serious thought. There are reasonable grounds for believing that the early church took the New Testament narratives seriously — so why not twenty first century post-modern man; moreover twenty first century Christian believer.
The Liberals compromised on the truth, slipping down the slide into obscurity and death. The Fundamentalists separated and, now, stand their ground on issues of morality, but ‘standing on their ground they remain— and Evangelicals? Mark Knoll gives the strong impression that Evangelicals have missed the opportunity to take at least some of the high ground in academic circles (25). Noll, I suggest is correct, although it is not simply that Evangelicals should be looking for acceptance in the Halls of Academia, but rather that the world of Academia needs to hear the message of the gospel. The point being that, if we (Evangelicals) do not wake up to the fact that belief in a credible Jesus may not exist in the future if belief in the relevance, authenticity and authority of The Word of God is further undermined.
I am aware that I speak, in the main, to those who hold to the view that God may work in spite of any opposition to the gospel of grace, and to those who believe in the sovereignty of God, and who believe that He, The Lord Jesus, has given us the charge of going out into the world and making disciples. To both I say, take heart for we have a sound reason for proclaiming that the New Testament Christ and His word are both true, very relevant and imminent. Douglas Groothuis (26) says that the canon of the New Testament is not an inauthentic collection of material created to suppress legitimate documents that present a New Age version of Jesus. Furthermore he says that no one should reject the biblical presentation of Jesus on the basis that the books of the New Testament were merely a result of political or theological prejudice.
In this article I have argued that, contrary to the denial of post modern man being able to deal with truth issues, truth today is an issue for every thinking person. I have argued that, because man is able to reason out the truth, man (even post-modern man) will be ready to accept an apologetic that is based on something that is believable. If not there is little point engaging in apologetics.
“We did not follow cleverly invented stories when we told you about the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eye witnesses of his majesty.” (2 Peter 1:16)
1. Harold A Netland. “Apologetics, Worldviews, and the Problem of Neutral Criteria.” Trinity Journal 12 (1991)
2. D.A. Carson. The Gagging of God (Apollos) 1996 p.51
3. unknown source
4. Francis Schaeffer, Escape from Reason(IVP), 1968
6. Peter Hicks, Evangelicals and Truth (Apollos), 1998. p35
7. William J. Cairney, An Evidential Approach to Biblical Christianity [Evidence for Faith] (Probe Books) ,1991. p.21
8. This really depends on whether or not there is, in existence, a GOD who knows of events prior to their actual occurrence; this obviously has an affect on believer and cynic alike.
9. Again this may depend on what is seen as a ‘possibility’.
10. Ibid p.21
11. Matthew 13:15
12. Coming to faith in Christ is not, however, simply a matter of believing in the authority of the Bible. Saving faith, as a norm, comes through the preaching and reading of the recorded word – the word through which Christ is made known, and has been made known to many throughout the centuries.
13. Books relating to prophecy and its use in apologetics:
14. Such as a prediction of something that would have happened anyway
15. John A. Bloom, Evidence for Faith [Truth Via Prophecy] (Probe Books), 1991. p.178
16. Allan A. MacRae, Evidence for Faith [The Canon of Scripture] (Probe Books), 1991. p.215
17. Alister E McGrath, A Passion for Truth (Apollos), 1996. p.102
18. Allan A. MacRae, Evidence for Faith [The Canon of Scripture] (Probe Books), 1991. p216
19. John Warwick Montgomery, History and Christianity, 1964 (Bethany House), pp. [28-29]
20. Douglas Groothuis, Jesus in an Age of Controversy. 1996 (Kingsway), p.118
21. David G. Dunbar, Hermeneutics, Authority and Canon (The Biblical Canon), 1986 (IVP .p357
22. John Drane, The Bible Phenomenon, 1999 (Lion 1999), p.54
23. Douglas Groothuis, Jesus in an Age of Controversy. 1996 (Kingsway), p.308
24. Carson, Moo and Morris, An Introduction to The New Testament, 1992 (Apollos) p.499
25. Mark A. Noll, The Scandal Of The Evangelical Mind. 1994 (IVP)
26. Douglas Groothuis, Jesus in an Age of Controversy. 1996 (Kingsway), p.312
Douglass Groothuis said that for two thousand years, the controversy over Christ has continued to rage without letup, and that, today, everyone has an opinion about Jesus. Groothuis states: “These opinions range from the traditional to the novel to the heretical. For many, Jesus is merely the expression of one’s desires and imagination..”(D Groothuis) A Life magazine article on differing views of Jesus stated that. ‘We see Jesus as many different people—dutiful son, ascetic, sage, martyr –depending on our own needs we see Jesus in our own image. There are, without doubt, many opinions about the person of Christ but is it really true that ‘everyone’ has an ‘opinion’? Do the ‘uninitiated’ and uneducated’ have any real notion of the person, nature and work of Christ? Continue reading
Being ‘relevant’ is what the first century church was not. It did not and could not ‘bow the knee’ to the ‘lordship’ of Caesar. Sadly the tardy hash tag of relevance has plagued the missional endeavours of many recent attempts of ‘freshly expressing’ the Christian faith.
“When I read stuff like this, my reaction isn’t anger. It’s an eye-roll. Churches should know better than to believe the myth that accommodation will swell their ranks. The opposite happens.” Andrew Walker
Andrew Walker’s words will be endorsed by anyone with any kind of comprehension of the de facto state of affairs that is fallen humanity. We are not ‘gods’ so that we fall at the feet of human reason or social mores. We are ‘Adam’, who is cast out of the garden—out of the presence of God.
“Other-Worldliness is [now] a seldom used word. The word really speaks for itself—meaning ‘not like this world’—ethereal even. Christ’s followers ought to be both heavenly-minded and different—unlike the prevailing cultural norm. Those who are considered other-worldly’ are often thought to be decidedly odd—different even. Jesus, quite clearly, calls his followers to be significantly different. History has proven that the behaviour/lifestyle of many Christians has profoundly affected the course of history. Openness, Orthodoxy and Other-Worldliness are, for professing Christians, and for those not yet on the Christian journey, as essential as water is for fish. Without Biblical orthodoxy, there is no gospel; without openness, there may be no access; without other-worldliness, there may be no salvation.” (‘Walls That Divide: Openness Orthodoxy and Other-Worldliness’ 2010)
I wrote the above words a while ago now, and as I look back over the last five years I wonder how my use of these 1820 days look from God’s perspective: Have I been ‘other worldly’—focussed on what God would achieve through me—through the talents (Matt 25:14-30) God has invested in me? Have I been ‘that’ different—winsome enough to attract others to seek after Christ? Moreover, have I been bold enough to speak out for Christ or have I held back for fear of rejection—or of being labelled a bigot? Have I allowed the world to shape me or to stifle the most important news the world (our world) will ever hear? I’m pretty sure that there will have been, for all of us (professing disciples of Christ) good and bad days. The question though is not one of ‘productivity’ but of ‘availability’. Exactly, how available have ‘we’ been over these 1820 days?
We tend to define our humanity in terms of our current social and cultural mores. In the West we stereo type the ‘uncultured’ man among us as being made in the image of someone like Homer Simpson rather than God. Ironically none of us would want to be considered anything like this particular cartoon character as anyone observing the behaviour of Simpson would not consider his behaviour the ‘norm’— especially for themselves. Homer lives to: eat, drink, be merry, and to bring in the ‘burgers’ for his family. These things seem to sum up Homer Simpson’s raison detre — yet there is a glimmer of a desire to communicate with God even in the likes of Homer Simpson. How then would most people in the West define the meaning and purpose of their lives? How do people in the UK, Europe and the USA define themselves, their lives, their experiences — their ‘meaning’? Is ‘life’ for the average person as, Mike Featherstone suggests [Consumer Culture and Postmodernism], little more than consumerism playing with people’s aspirations—clouding the boundaries between reality and fantasy? Are ‘products and commodities’ US?
Like many efforts to put a label on the ‘human problem’, the above definition of personal reality only gives an insight into the effects of culture on the individual — a way of outlining the ‘current’ symptoms. If, as we are convinced, there is a deep seated problem in the human psyche then prognosis is vital; of course, this would be an impossible task if there were no pattern to work from. For this we need more than a degree in physiology or psychology. Having such knowledge would only give us a certain amount of information, information that does not give a complete picture of what it is to be human. The question is, do we really need to define or diagnose the ‘human problem’? If we answer no, it may be that we are afraid of the results and the consequences for us personally. If we answer yes then we are in good company for many are seeking answers to that question.
In our increasingly secular western culture any question of meaning has been marginalised by the shift to materialism and consumerism — so much so that we in the West seem to have lost the will to enquire as to whether or not there is any ‘meaning’ outside of our quasi- materialistic ghettos. Barack Obama, some years before his historic move to the White House, observed, “Each day, it seems, thousands of Americans are going about their daily rounds….and coming to the realisation that something is missing. They are deciding that their work, their possessions, their diversions, their sheer busyness are not enough. They want a sense of purpose, a narrative to their lives, something that will relieve a chronic loneliness or lift them above the exhausting, relentless toll of daily life.” Interestingly enough the article this quote comes from what was named ‘The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on reclaiming the American Dream’ (2006). ‘The audacity of hope’…now there is a phrase to chew on in itself! We may not feel that we buy into the American dream — especially in these tricky times but perhaps we feel that Obama’s comments on the search for meaning and purpose have a ring of truth to them.
Whether it be through political, social or cultural systems, or indeed ‘spiritual’ experiences, it is likely that people are looking for a narrative to provide some sense of purpose to their existence. Our contention would also be that in societies with any kind of ‘Christian heritage’ [especially in America and the UK] people would be most reluctant patients when it came to an attempt at diagnosis of a human problem that could in any way include themselves. We are quick to blame all manner of things for the breakdown of law and order, or the state of our schools, or the ‘youth of today’, but we don’t often go looking for problems inside of ourselves, or in generalised humankind. Day-to-day living takes enough of our energy and focus and brings enough problems of its own. It is true that introspection is not always a healthy pursuit but if in the physical realm we see or feel symptoms, then we tend to seek a diagnosis, because only then can we receive, or offer, appropriate treatment and care. We would argue that the same applies in the spiritual realm, and in the space where the spiritual and physical meet, i.e. God at work in us as people made in His image. Continue reading
Justification Changes Everything
In his book ‘The Divine Conspiracy’  the philosopher Dallas Willard says that if you ask anyone from the seventy four percent of Americans who say that they have made a commitment to Jesus Christ, or ask them what the Christian gospel actually is,you will probably be told the following: Jesus died to pay for our sins, and that if we believe he, i.e. Jesus did this, we will go to heaven when we die (wherever/whatever heaven might be). Continue reading
Imagine there is no heaven,
No other place to go;
That there is no redemption
Life , but a tale of woe;
Imagine all of life’s predation
Red in tooth and claw
You may think that I’m a schemer, but that’s the devil’s lie;
My hope is that you’ll join me in the world that is to come.
Imagine there is a reason,
It’s easy if you try;
That it is his own decisions
That causes man to die;
Imagine things atoned for
That, which man could never do
Imagine God’s compassion
Christ’s tasting death for me
In death the Son prevailing
So that I may be free
Imagine all the people living their lives today
Without the hope of glory, choosing another’s way
Derek J. White 12/14